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Michael Stapelberg

A quick introduction to MQTT for IOT (2021)

published 2021-01-10
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While I had heard the abbreviation MQTT many times, I never had a closer look at what MQTT is.

Here are a few quick notes about using MQTT as Pub/Sub bus in a home IOT network.


Once you have a few IOT devices, an obvious question is how to network them.

If all your devices are from the same vendor, the vendor takes care of it.

In my home, I have many different vendors/devices, such as (incomplete list):

Here is how I combine these devices:

  • When I’m close to my home (geo-fencing), the Nuki Opener enables Ring To Open (RTO): when I ring the door bell, it opens the door for me.
  • When I open the apartment door, the Smart Lights in the hallway turn on.
  • When I’m home, my stereo speakers should be powered on so I can play music.

A conceptually simple way to hook this up is to connect things directly: listen to the Aqara Door Sensor and instruct the Smart Lights to turn on, for example.

But, connecting everything to an MQTT bus has a couple of advantages:

  1. Unification: everything is visible in one place, the same tools work for all devices.
  2. Your custom logic is uncoupled from vendor details: you can receive and send MQTT.
  3. Compatibility with existing software, such as Home Assistant or openHAB

Step 1. Set up an MQTT broker (server)

A broker is what relays messages between publishers and subscribers. As an optimization, the most recent value of a topic can be retained, so that e.g. a subscriber does not need to wait for the next change to obtain the current state.

The most popular choice for broker software seems to be Mosquitto, but since I like to run Go software on, I kept looking and found

One downside of hmq might be that it does not seem to support persisting retained messages to disk. I’ll treat this as a feature for the time being, enforcing a fresh start on every daily reboot.

To restrict hmq to only listen in my local network, I’m using gokrazy’s flag file feature:

mkdir -p flags/
echo --host= > flags/

Note that you’ll need in case your network does not come up quickly.

MQTT broker setup: displaying/sending test messages

To display all messages going through your MQTT broker, subscribe using the Mosquitto tools:

% sudo pacman -S mosquitto
% mosquitto_sub --id "${HOST}_all" --host dr.lan --topic '#' --verbose

The # sign denotes an MQTT wildcard, meaning subscribe to all topics in this case.

Be sure to set a unique id for each mosquitto_sub command you run, so that you can see which subscribers are connected to your MQTT bus. Avoid id clashes, otherwise the subscribers will disconnect each other!

Now, when you send a test message, you should see it:

% mosquitto_pub --host dr.lan --topic 'cmnd/tasmota_68462F/Power' -m 'ON'

Tip: If you have binary data on your MQTT bus, you can display it in hex with timestamps:

% mosquitto_sub \
  --id "${HOST}_bell" \
  --host dr.lan \
  --topic 'doorbell/#' \
  -F '@Y-@m-@dT@H:@M:@S@z : %t : %x'

Step 2. Integrate with MQTT

Now that communication via the bus works, what messages do we publish on which topics?

MQTT only defines that topics are hierarchical; messages are arbitrary byte sequences.

There are a few popular conventions for what to put onto MQTT:

If you design everything yourself, Homie seems like a good option. If you plan to use Home Assistant or similar, stick to the Home Assistant convention.

Best practices for your own structure

In case you want/need to define your own topics, keep these tips in mind:

  • devices publish their state on a single, retained topic
    • the topic name could be e.g. stat/tasmota_68462F/POWER
    • retaining the topic allows consumers to catch up after (re-)connecting to the bus
  • publish commands on a single, possibly-retained topic
    • e.g. publish ON to topic cmnd/tasmota_68462F/Power
    • publish the desired state: publish ON or OFF instead of TOGGLE
    • if you retain the topic and publish TOGGLE commands, your lights will mysteriously go off/on when they unexpectedly re-establish their MQTT connection

Integration: Shelly devices with MQTT built-in

Shelly has a number of smart devices that come with MQTT out of the box! This sounds like the easiest solution if you’re starting from scratch.

I haven’t used these devices personally, but I hear good things about them.

Integration: Zigbee2MQTT for Zigbee devices

Zigbee2MQTT supports well over 1000 Zigbee devices and exposes them on the MQTT bus.

For example, this is what you would use to connect your IKEA TRÅDFRI Smart Lights to MQTT.

Integration: ESPHome for micro controllers + sensors

The ESPHome system is a ready-made solution to connect a wide array of sensors and devices to your home network via MQTT.

If you want to use your own ESP-based micro controllers and sensors, this seems like the easiest way to get them programmed.

Integration: Mongoose OS for micro controllers

Mongoose OS is an IOT firmware development framework, taking care of device management, Over-The-Air updates, and more.

Mongoose comes with MQTT support, and with just a few lines you can build, flash and configure your device. Here’s an example for the NodeMCU (ESP8266-based):

% yay -S mos-bin
% mos clone app1
% cd app1
% mos --platform esp8266 build
% mos --platform esp8266 --port /dev/ttyUSB1 flash
% mos --port /dev/ttyUSB1 config-set mqtt.enable=true mqtt.server=dr.lan:1883

Pressing the button on the NodeMCU publishes a message to MQTT:

% mosquitto_sub --host dr.lan --topic devices/esp8266_F4B37C/events

Integration: Arduino for custom micro controller firmware

Arduino has an MQTT Client library. If your microcontroller is networked, e.g. an ESP32 with WiFi, you can publish MQTT messages from your Arduino sketch:

#include <WiFi.h>
#include <PubSubClient.h>

WiFiClient wificlient;
PubSubClient client(wificlient);

void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) {
    Serial.print("Message arrived [");
    Serial.print("] ");
    for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
    if (strcmp(topic, "doorbell/cmd/unlock") == 0) {
  		// …

void taskmqtt(void *pvParameters) {
	for (;;) {
		if (!client.connected()) {
			client.connect("doorbell" /* clientid */);

		// Poll PubSubClient for new messages and invoke the callback.
		// Should be called as infrequent as one is willing to delay
		// reacting to MQTT messages.
		// Should not be called too frequently to avoid strain on
		// the network hardware:

void setup() {
	connectToWiFi(); // WiFi configuration omitted for brevity

	client.setServer("dr.lan", 1883);

	xTaskCreatePinnedToCore(taskmqtt, "MQTT", 2048, NULL, 1, NULL, PRO_CPU_NUM);

void processEvent(void *buf, int telegramLen) {
	client.publish("doorbell/events/scs", buf, telegramLen);

Integration: Webhook to MQTT

The Nuki Opener doesn’t support MQTT out of the box, but the Nuki Bridge can send Webhook requests. In a few lines of Go, you can forward what the Nuki Bridge sends to MQTT:

package main

import (

	mqtt ""

func nukiBridge() error {
	opts := mqtt.NewClientOptions().AddBroker("tcp://dr.lan:1883")
	mqttClient := mqtt.NewClient(opts)
	if token := mqttClient.Connect(); token.Wait() && token.Error() != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("MQTT connection failed: %v", token.Error())

	mux := http.NewServeMux()
	mux.HandleFunc("/nuki", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
		b, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r.Body)
		if err != nil {
			http.Error(w, err.Error(), http.StatusInternalServerError)

			"zkj-nuki/webhook", // topic
			0, // qos
			true, // retained
			string(b)) // payload

	return http.ListenAndServe(":8319", mux)

func main() {
	if err := nukiBridge(); err != nil {

See Nuki’s Bridge HTTP-API document for details on how to configure your bridge to send webhook callbacks.

Step 3. Express your logic

Home Assistant and Node-RED are both popular options, but also large software packages.

Personally, I find it more fun to express my logic directly in a full programming language (Go).

I call the resulting program regelwerk (“collection of rules”). The program consists of:

  1. various control loops that progress independently from each other
  2. an MQTT message dispatcher feeding these control loops
  3. a debugging web interface to visualize state

This architecture is by no means a new approach: as moquette describes it, this is to MQTT what inetd is to IP. I find moquette’s one-process-per-message model to be too heavyweight and clumsy to deploy to, so regelwerk is entirely in-process and a single, easy-to-deploy binary, both to computers for notifications, or to headless Raspberry Pis.

regelwerk: control loops definition

regelwerk defines a control loop as a stateful function that accepts an event (from MQTT) and returns messages to publish to MQTT, if any:

type controlLoop interface {

	StatusString() string // for human introspection

	ProcessEvent(MQTTEvent) []MQTTPublish

// Like mqtt.Message, but with timestamp
type MQTTEvent struct {
	Timestamp time.Time
	Topic     string
	Payload   interface{}

// Parameters for mqtt.Client.Publish()
type MQTTPublish struct {
	Topic    string
	Qos      byte
	Retained bool
	Payload  interface{}

regelwerk: MQTT dispatcher

Our MQTT message handler dispatches each incoming message to all control loops, in one goroutine per message and loop. With typical message volumes on a personal MQTT bus, this is a simple yet effective design that brings just enough isolation.

type mqttMessageHandler struct {
	dryRun bool
	loops  []controlLoop

func (h *mqttMessageHandler) handle(client mqtt.Client, m mqtt.Message) {
	log.Printf("received message %q on %q", m.Payload(), m.Topic())
	ev := MQTTEvent{
		Timestamp: time.Now(), // consistent for all loops
		Topic:     m.Topic(),
		Payload:   m.Payload(),

	for _, l := range h.loops {
		l := l // copy
		go func() {
			// For reliability, we call each loop in its own goroutine
			// (yes, one per message), so that when one loop gets stuck,
			// the others still make progress.
			results := l.ProcessEvent(ev)
			if len(results) == 0 {
			for _, r := range results {
				log.Printf("publishing: %+v", r)
				if !h.dryRun {
					client.Publish(r.Topic, r.Qos, r.Retained, r.Payload)
			// …input/output logging omitted for brevity…

regelwerk: control loop example

Now that we have the definition and dispatching out of the way, let’s take a look at an actual example control loop.

This control loops looks at whether my PC is unlocked (in use) or whether my phone is home, and then turns off/on my stereo speakers accordingly.

The inputs come from runstatus and dhcp4d, the output goes to a Sonoff S26 Smart Power Plug running Tasmota.

type avrPowerLoop struct {
	statusLoop // for l.statusf() debugging

	midnaUnlocked          bool
	michaelPhoneExpiration time.Time

func (l *avrPowerLoop) ProcessEvent(ev MQTTEvent) []MQTTPublish {
	// Update loop state based on inputs:
	switch ev.Topic {
	case "runstatus/midna/i3lock":
		var status struct {
			Running bool `json:"running"`
		if err := json.Unmarshal(ev.Payload.([]byte), &status); err != nil {
			l.statusf("unmarshaling runstatus: %v", err)
			return nil
		l.midnaUnlocked = !status.Running

	case "router7/dhcp4d/lease/Michaels-iPhone":
		var lease struct {
			Expiration time.Time `json:"expiration"`
		if err := json.Unmarshal(ev.Payload.([]byte), &lease); err != nil {
			l.statusf("unmarshaling router7 lease: %v", err)
			return nil
		l.michaelPhoneExpiration = lease.Expiration

		return nil // event did not influence our state

	// Publish desired state changes:
	now := ev.Timestamp
	phoneHome := l.michaelPhoneExpiration.After(now)
	anyoneHome := l.midnaUnlocked || (now.Hour() > 8 && phoneHome)
	l.statusf("midnaUnlocked=%v || (now.Hour=%v > 8 && phoneHome=%v)",
		l.midnaUnlocked, now.Hour(), phoneHome)

	payload := "OFF"
	if anyoneHome {
		payload = "ON"
	return []MQTTPublish{
			Topic:    "cmnd/tasmota_68462F/Power",
			Payload:  payload,
			Retained: true,


I like the Pub/Sub pattern for home automation, as it nicely uncouples all components.

It’s a shame that standards such as The Homie convention aren’t more widely supported, but it looks like software makes up for that via configuration options.

There are plenty of existing integrations that should cover most needs.

Ideally, more Smart Home and IOT vendors would add MQTT support out of the box, like Shelly.

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