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Michael Stapelberg

Survey answers part 1: systemd has too many dependencies, or it is bloated, or it does too many things, or is too complex (2013)

published 2013-06-09, last modified 2019-02-04
in tag debian
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This blog post is the first of a series of posts dealing with the results of the Debian systemd survey. I intend to give a presentation at DebConf 2013, too, so you could either read my posts, or watch the talk, or both :-).

The top concern shared by most people is:

systemd has too many dependencies, or it is bloated, or it does too many things, or is too complex

Now this concern actually has a lot of different facets, and I am trying to share my opinion on each of them.

systemd has too many dependencies

First, let’s start with “too many dependencies”, because that is easy to check and reason about. I have created a document which lists all dependencies of the systemd binary itself (pid 1) and all the binaries which are currently shipped by the systemd Debian package. If you don’t want to take my word for granted, please read that document.

Have you read the document? Very nice! As you can see, the systemd binary itself has 10 dependencies (excluding libc). Now, the question is, what is bad about dependencies? Why do people list dependencies as a top concern?

  1. Cyclic dependencies. When you hear that your init system depends on DBus, you might argue that there is a cyclic dependency here, because DBus needs to be started by the init system. However, systemd does NOT depend on dbus-daemon (!) to boot your machine. Instead of using the system bus, it uses a private UNIX socket. Therefore, systemd uses DBus merely as a serialization format for IPC between its different processes. Only when you want to access systemd via its API as a user (non-root), you actually use the system bus. Since we are talking about DBus: DBus provides a well-tested serialization format and IPC mechanism so that systemd doesn’t have to reinvent the wheel and instead benefits from wide support within languages.
  2. Complicated code. I feel like there is the implicit assumption that lots of dependencies correlate with complicated code that is easy to break. I encourage you to have a look at systemd’s source code: look for the places where specific libraries are used, e.g. enforce_user which uses libcap. You’ll notice that the code is not complex and usage of the libraries is clear.
  3. Software dragging in lots of library packages. The libraries which systemd uses are already in widespread use (e.g. DBus, udev, selinux, libcap, pcre, …). On a typical Debian installation, only very few of them will be dragged in by systemd, if at all. As an example, on a fresh Debian Wheezy installation, less than 10 packages will end up on your machine when running “apt-get install systemd”.
  4. More memory use. The Linux kernel maps libraries into memory only once, no matter how many processes use them. As stated in the dependency list, on machines where the libraries are not already loaded, systemd brings in about 500 KiB of additional memory-mapped libraries in the worst case. On the machines we have these days, this is a reasonable cost to pay for all the benefits systemd gets us. This holds true on embedded systems with only a few MiB of RAM and especially on typical workstations with 8+ GiB of RAM.

systemd is bloated

Now, let’s talk about bloat. Again, this is a point which has many facets. I’d like to quote the Wikipedia definition of software bloat:

Software bloat is a process whereby successive versions of a computer program become perceptibly slower, use more memory or processing power, or have higher hardware requirements than the previous version whilst making only dubious user-perceptible improvements.

The first part of the definition certainly does not match systemd — it is measurably faster than sysvinit. As for memory usage: systemd’s RSS is 1.8 MiB, whereas sysvinit uses 0.8 MiB. As I argued on the “More memory use” point in the dependencies section, I think the additional resource cost is well worth the benefits.

Also note that systemd’s features are NOT all implemented in the binary which is PID 1. As explained in the dependency list, systemd consists of many cleanly separated binaries. So if a new version of systemd gathers an additional feature, this does not mean that your PID 1 will be bigger.

While systemd runs on any hardware, it has an indirect hardware requirement: it requires some Linux kernel features (which are all enabled in Debian kernels). That might rule out usage of systemd on really old embedded hardware where you don’t have a chance to update the kernel. While it is sad that those machines cannot profit from systemd, switching to systemd as a default has no downside either: Debian continues to support sysvinit for quite some time, so these machines will continue to work even with upcoming Debian versions.

systemd does too many things

The Wikipedia definition continues:

[…] perceived bloat can occur from the software servicing a large, diverse marketplace with many differing requirements. Most end users will feel they only need some limited subset of the available functions and will regard the others as unnecessary bloat, even if people with different requirements do use them.

I think the last part of the Wikipedia definition applies to systemd: it does service a large and diverse “marketplace”. That marketplace is the entirety of existing software which is started by an init system. Also, systemd can be used on a wide range of hardware (embedded devices, tablets, phones, notebooks, desktops, servers) which requires different features. As an example: on a desktop system you typically don’t care strongly about a watchdog feature, but on embedded or servers that feature is very handy. Similarly, on a tablet, forward secure sealing of logfiles is not as important as on a server. Therefore, I can understand if you feel that you don’t need many of the features systemd provides. But please think of other users and maintainers who are very happy with systemd’s benefits.

Also note that while systemd supports many things (in separate binaries!), you don’t have to use them all. It still makes sense to ship them all in the same package. Take coreutils as another example in that area. The binaries belong together, even though you most likely haven’t used all of them (e.g. od, pr, ptx, … :-)).

systemd is too complex

The remaining concern is that systemd is too complex. In my experience, complexity is often inherent to a specific area and one cannot simply make it go away. Instead, there are different models of how that complexity is represented. Think of the monolithic Linux kernel versus the MINIX microkernel. The latter has a very small amount of lines of source in the kernel, but puts the complexity into userspace. The former uses a different approach with more source in the kernel. The arguments between both camps show that neither is clearly right or clearly wrong.

In a way, sysvinit represents the MINIX model: it has a small core (the init binary itself), but a lot of complexity in shell scripts and external programs. The fact that solutions are copied from one init script to another leads to lots of subtle errors and makes code reuse really hard. systemd however has more source code in the binaries, but requires only very simple, descriptive, textual configuration instead of complex init scripts. To me, it seems preferable to have the complexity in a single place instead of distributed across lots of people and projects.


In a way, you are right. systemd centralizes complexity from tons of init scripts into a single place. However, it therefore makes it very easy for maintainers to write service files (equivalent of an init script) and provides a consistent and reliable interface for service management. Furthermore, it is different than sysvinit, and different solutions often seem complex at first. While systemd consumes more resources than sysvinit, it uses them to make more information available about services; its finer-grained service management requires more state-keeping, but in turn offers you more control over your services.

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